References - Journal of Health and Nursing Management | Sağlık ve Hemşirelik Yönetimi Dergisi


Authors are responsible for the accuracy of the references. JHNM (Journal of Health and Nursing Management)  expects the authors to use primary sources as much as possible to facilitate readers' access to relevant resources.

References should be written as single-spaced and double-spaced between two references, in alphabetical order without numbering at the end of the text.

American Psychological Association (APA) 6th version reference rules are used in the articles sent to JNHM. The author (s) must state the citations in the article text and references in accordance with the APA style. All references should be stated in the text.

References in English manuscript should be written as stated in the examples below.


  • All in-text citation should be in the reference and all the sources in the references should be included in the text.
  • References are in the text; It should be shown in alphabetical order in parentheses, after the author's surname is written, with a comma and publication date, closing the parenthesis and putting a dot at the end.

(Dantzer, 2003). 
(Ertürk, 2019).

  • If more than one work of the same author or institution has been cited in the same date, it should be shown as (Koçel, 2009a, 2009b;) in the text, and the same author, which has been cited for more than one work in different years, should be shown in a way to be listed from the old date to the new date like (Koçel, 2008, 2014).

    For two publications of the same author with the same date; (Seren, 2005a, 2005b)

    For two publications of the same author with different dates; (Yozgat, 2008, 2014)
  • If more than one references is used in the text, the surname of the author shown in parentheses and the semicolon (;) must be placed between the sources after the date. The ranking of the authors should be written alphabetically according to their surnames.

    (Aykut, 2014; Göktepe, 2000; Tatar, 2019; Yavuz, 2010).
  •  '&' and 'et al.,' should be used when citing the text in parentheses.

    (Kimberger & Kurz, 2008; Okutan & Kutsal, 2001; Yozgat et al., 2018).
    (Pinquart & Shen, 2012).

    (Huber et al., 2010; Rowland & Rowland, 2010; Seren & Harmancı, 2008).
  • If a direct quote from the source or a quote from a particular page is quoted, the quoted page is also written. Page number writing must be used only when a part of a work (such as a paragraph or chapter in a book) is referred to. If the source covers a single topic (such as a journal article), it is not necessary to indicate the page when referring.

    ... (Köker, 1998, p. 42).
    Indeed, one researcher commented that “technological innovations have saved or extended the lives of many patients” (Lumby, 2001, p. 44).

    Water is a necessary part of every person’s diet and of all the nutrients a body needs to function, it requires more water each day than any other nutrient (Whitney & Rolfes, 2011, p. 52).

    Research can be defined as a systematic method of creating new knowledge or a way to verify existing knowledge ( Simsek & Simsek, 2008, p. 36).

    The APA manual states that the year should be included in all citations that are in brackets.  “Do include the year in all parenthetical citations” (APA, 2010, p. 174).
  • If the referance covers a single topic (such as a journal article), it is not necessary to indicate the page when referring to such a study.
  • If reference is made to the source in the form of a sentence in the text; "and" should be written between the two sources at the beginning of the text.

    Whitney and Rolfes (2011) state the body requires many nutrients to function but highlight that water is of greater importance than any other nutrient.


    Water is an essential element of anyone’s diet and Whitney and Rolfes (2011) emphasise it is more important than any other nutrient.
  • Citation with three, four, five authors

    First citation in the text
    …..(Bradley, Calhoun, Davis & Fitch, 2004; Göktepe, Ercan, Koç & Taşkın, 2011).

    Ailen, Ciambrune and Welch (2000) stated that.....

    Subsequent citations in the text

    ...(Bradley et al., 2004; Göktepe et al., 2011).
    Ailen et al. (2000) find ........
  • Six or more authors should be written with abbreviations after the first author, both in the first use and in repetitive uses.

    (Haines et al., 2013; Seren et al., 2004).
  • The citation from which institutions or groups are authors

    In the first use, the full name of the institution / group and the abbreviation after it should be used, only the abbreviation and date should be used in the next uses. While writing the first abbreviation, it should be written in square brackets.

    First use;
    (Türk Dil Kurumu [TDK], 2018).
    ….. (Ministry of Health [MOH], 2014).

    Repetitive uses;
    (TDK, 2018).
    (MOH, 2014).

    If the first use is made within the sentence; Turkish Language Association (TDK, 2018).
    Ministry of Health (2014), …….
  • Citation of different authors of the same surname

    While showing the source of different authors with the same surname, the initials of the first authors should be written together with the year.
    A. D. Davis (2011) and P. T. Davis (2009), …..


  • All the citations used in the article should be given in a separate section at the end of the text, without alphabetically numbering according to the surnames of the authors.
  • All citations in English and Turkish in the References section should be written with similar spelling rules.
  • Journal names should be written in full, without shortening. If shortened, shortening can be done as used in Pubmed.
  • The first letter of the name is indicated first in the references that alphabetically comes first, even if its publication is older.
  • The two works of the same author are written according to the date order and the old one comes first.
  • In the references of books and reports, the place where it was first published (with the name of the country) and then the name of the bookstore / publisher, 'bookstore, publishing house, publication' etc. attachments should be written without specifying.
  • There should be a space between the abbreviations of the two named authors.

    Naylor, M. D., Aiken, L. H., Kurtzman, E. T., Olds, D. M. & Hirschman, K. B. (2011).
  • Book with one author

    Eren, E. (2000). Stratejik yönetim ve işletme politikası. İstanbul, Türkiye: Beta Basım Dağıtım. (in Turkish)
    Köker, E. (1998). Politikanın iletişimi iletişimin politikası. Ankara, Türkiye: Vadi.  (in Turkish)
    Abisel, N. (2006). Sessiz sinema. Ankara, Türkiye: Deki. (in Turkish)
    Huber, D. L. (2010). Leadership and nursing care management. (4th ed.). Missouri, USA: Saunders Elsevier.
    Collier, A. (2008). The world of tourism and travel. Rosedale. New Zealand: Pearson Education.
    Airey, D. (2010). Logo design love: A guide to creating iconic brand identities. Berkeley, CA: New Riders.
  • If a writer's multiple works published in the same year

    Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002a). Sosyal bilimler için veri analizi el kitabı. Ankara, Türkiye: Pegem A Yayıncılık. (in Turkish)
    Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2002b). Anket geliştirme. Türk Eğitim Bilimleri Dergisi, 3:2, 133-148. (in Turkish)
  • Book with multiple authors

    Abisel, N., Arslan, U.T., Behçetoğulları, P., Karadoğan, A., Öztürk, S.R. & Ulusay, N. (2005). Çok tuhaf çok tanıdık. İstanbul, Türkiye: Metis. (in Turkish)
    Tonta, Y., Bitirim, Y. & Sever, H. (2002). Türkçe arama motorlarında performans değerlendirme. Ankara, Türkiye: Total Bilişim. (in Turkish)
    Kamien, R. & Kamien, A. (2014). Music: An appreciation. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
    Hatch, D.J., Sumner, E. & Hellman, J. (1994). The surgical neonate: Anaesthesia and intensive care. (3rd ed., pp. 1-12). London, England: Edward Arnold.
    Polit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2008). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (8th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Book translated into Turkish

    Rowley, J. (1992). Bilginin düzenlenmesi: Bilgi erişime giriş. (Translation. S. Karakaş,
    H. Ü. Can, A. Yıldızeli, B. Kayıran). Ankara, Türkiye: Türk Kütüphaneciler Derneği.
    (Translation publication date: 1996). (in Turkish)
    Zizek, S. (2009). Matrix: Ya da sapkınlığın iki yüzü (Translation. B. Turan). İstanbul, Türkiye: Encore. (Translation publication date: 2018). (in Turkish)
    Polit, D. F. & Beck, C. T. (2014). Hemşirelik araştırmasının esasları. Hemşirelik uygulaması için kanıtın değerlendirilmesi. (8. ed.). (Translation Edis. Ö. Aslan, H. Bebiş). Ankara, Türkiye: Pelikan Kitabevi. (Translation publication date: 2016). (in Turkish)
  • Edited book

    Özbek, M. (Ed.). (2005). Kamusal alan. İstanbul, Türkiye: Hil. (in Turkish)
    Karancı, A. N. (Ed.). (1997). Farklılıkla yaşamak aile ve toplumun farklı gereksinimleri olan bireylerle birlikteliği. Ankara, Türkiye: Türk Psikologlar Derneği Yayınları. (in Turkish)
  • Chapter in an edited book

    Kejanlıoğlu, B. (2005). Medya çalışmalarında kamusal alan kavramı. İçinde M. Özbek (Eds.),  Kamusal alan (pp. 689-713). İstanbul, Türkiye: Hil. (in Turkish)
    Erkmen, T. (2012). Örgüt kültürü: Fonksiyonları, öğeleri, işletme yönetimi ve liderlikteki önemi. İçinde M. Zencirkıran (Eds.), Örgüt sosyolojisi kitabı (pp.236-270). Bursa, Türkiye: Dora. (in Turkish)
    Bassett, C. (2006). Cultural studies and New Media. In G. Hall & C. Birchall (Eds.), New cultural studies: Adventures in theory (pp. 220–237). Edinburgh, UK: Edinburgh University Press.
    Palmer, F. (2007). Treaty principles and Maori Sport: Contemporary issues. In C. Collins & S. Jackson (Eds.), Sport in Aotearoa/New Zealand society (2nd ed., pp. 307-334). South Melbourne, Australia: Thomson.
    McKinney, C. & Smith, N. (2005). To Tiriti o Waitangi or The Treaty of Waitangi: What ıs the difference? In D. Wepa (Ed.), Cultural safety in Aotearoa New Zealand (pp. 39-57). Auckland, New Zealand: Pearson Education New Zealand.
  • Book with multiple editions

    Strunk, W. Jr. & White, E. B. (2000). The elements of style (4. ed.). New York, USA: Longman.

    Whitney, E. & Rolfes, S. (2011). Understanding nutrition (12th ed.). Australia: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
  • The e-version of the book

    Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version].
    doi: 10.1036/0071393722
    Shotton, M. A. (1989). Computer addiction? A study of computer dependency [DX Reader version]. Retrieved from
  • Book with the same organization as author and publisher

    Türk Standartları Enstitüsü. (1974). Adlandırma ilkeleri. Ankara, Türkiye: Yazar. (in Turkish)
    Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu. (2014). İstatistiklerle Türkiye. Ankara, Türkiye: Türkiye İstatistik Kurumu Matbaası. (in Turkish)
  • Single author article from the journal

    Köker, L. (2007). Hukuk reformları sürecinde Türkiye’nin insan hakları sorunu. İnsan Hakları Haberciliği, 3(2), 6-17. (in Turkish)
    Aktay, Y. (1999). Aklın sosyolojik soy kütüğü: Soy akıldan tarihsel ve toplumsal akla doğru. Toplum ve Bilim, 82, 114-140. (in Turkish)
    Anderson, A. K. (2005). Affective ınfluences on the attentional dynamics supporting awareness. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 134(2), 258–281.                   doi: 10.1037/0096- 3445.134.2.258
    Maienza, J. G. (1986). The superintendency: Characteristics of access for men and women. Educational Administration Quarterly, 22(4), 59-79.
  • Multiple author article from the journal

    Binark, F. M. & Çelikcan, P. (1998). Mahremin müzakereye çağrılması. Kültür ve İletişim, 1(2), 197-214. (in Turkish)
    Kernis, M. H., Cornell, D. P., Sun, C. R., Berry, A. & Harlow, T. (1993). There's more to self-esteem than whether it is high or low: The importance of stability of self-esteem. Journal of Social Psychology, 65(6), 1190-1204.                                            doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.65.6.1190
    Cheung, J. M. Y., Bartlett, D. J., Armour, C. L., Laba, T. L. & Saini, B. (2018). To drug or not to drug: A qualitative study of patients’ decision-making processes for managing insomnia. Behavioral Sleep Medicine, 16(1), 1-26.                                                                        doi: 10.1080/15402002.2016.1163702
    Arslan, R., Efe, D. & Aydın, E. (2013). Duygusal zekâ ve örgütsel bağlılık arasındaki ilişki: sağlık çalışanları üzerinde bir araştırma. Uluslararası Alanya İşletme Fakültesi Dergisi, 5(3), 169-180. (in Turkish)
  • If the number of authors is more than six and seven

    If the number of authors is six and seven, the names of all authors should be written inf full.
    If the number of authors is eight or more, the first six authors should be written and… .. the last author name should be shown as below.

    Mikosch, P., Hadrawa, T., Laubreiter, K., Brandl, J., Pilz, J., Stettner, H., & Grimm, G. (2010). Effectiveness of respiratory-sinus-arrhythmia biofeedback on state-anxiety in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 66(5), 1101-1110. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2010.05277.x

    Haines, T.P., Hill, A.M., Hill, K.D., Brauer, S.G., Hoffmann, T., Etherton-Beer, C., … Sandler, I.N. (2013). Cost effectiveness of patient education for the prevention of falls in hospital: Economic evaluation from a randomized controlled trial. BMC Medicine, 11, 135. doi: 10.1186/1741-7015-11-135
    Lal, H., Cunningham, A. L., Godeaux, O., Chlibek, R., Diez-Domingo, J., Hwang, S.-J., …..Lengua, L. (2015). Efficacy of an adjuvanted herpes zoster subunit vaccine in older adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 372, 2087–2096. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1501184

    Vissing, K., Brink, M., Lonbro, S., Sorensen, H., Overgaard, K., Danborg, K., ... Aagaard, P. (2008). Muscle adaptations to plyometric vs. resistance training in untrained young men. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 22(6), 1799-1810. doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e318185f673
  • Article from the electronic journal

    Smith, J. A. (2010). Citing advance online publication: A review. Journal of Psychology. Advance online publication.  doi: 10.1037/a45d7867
    Al, U., Doğan, G. (2012). Hacettepe Üniversitesi Bilgi ve Belge Yönetimi Bölümü tezlerinin atıf analizi. Türk Kütüphaneciliği, 26, 349–369. (in Turkish)
    Fredrickson, B. L. (2000). Cultivating positive emotions to optimize health and wellbeing. Prevention & Treatment, 3, Article 0001a.
    Anderson, G., Huseey, P.S. (2001). Comparing health system performance in OECD countries. Health Affairs, 20(3), 219-232.
  • Unpublished theses ( If downloaded from YOK, the URL address should be stated at the end)

    Değirmenci, S. (2012). Hemşirelerde duygusal emek davranışı (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). İstanbul Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü. İstanbul, Türkiye. (in Turkish)
    Sarı, E. (2008). Kültür kimlik ve politika: Mardin’de kültürlerin etkileşimi (Doktora Tezi). Ankara Üniversitesi Sosyal Bilimler Enstitüsü. Ankara, Türkiye. (in Turkish)
    Johnson, S. (2013). Style strategies (Master’s thesis). UCOL, Whanganui School of Design, Whanganui, New Zealand. 

    Bektaş, M. (2002). Sağlığı geliştirme konusunda verilen eğitimin benlik kavramı, kaygı düzeyi ve olumlu sağlık davranışlarında bulunma durumuna etkisi (Yüksek Lisans Tezi). Dokuz Eylül Üniversitesi Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü. İzmir, Türkiye. YOKTEZ (in Turkish)
    Mann, D. L. (2010). Vision and expertise for interceptive actions in sport (Doctoral dissertation). The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia). Retrieved from 
  • Posters and paper presentation

    Göktepe, N. (2010, 24-25 Mayıs). Hemşirelerin verimliliğe ilişkin tutumu. (Kongre Kitabı,  pp. 89]. 10. Hastane ve Sağlık Kuruluşları Kongresi, Kıbrıs. (in Turkish)
    Çepni, S., Bacanak A. & Özsevgeç T. (2001, 24-25 Haziran). Fen bilgisi öğretmen adaylarının fen branşlarına karşı tutumları ile fen branşlarındaki başarılarının ilişkisi. (Kongre Kitabı, pp. 25). X. Ulusal Eğitim Bilimleri Kongresi, Bolu, Türkiye. (in Turkish)
    Akdeniz, H., Irmak, H., & Seçkinli, T. (1996, 7-10 Mayıs). 312 Bruselloz olgusunun klinik ve laboratuvar özellikleri. (Kongre Kitabı, pp.23-25). XXVII. Türk Mikrobiyoloji Kongresi, Antalya, Türkiye. (in Turkish)
    MacColl, F., Ker, I., Huband, A., Veith, G. & Taylor, J. (2009, 12-13 November). Minimising pedestriancyclist conflict on paths. Paper presented at the Seventh New Zealand Cycling Conference, New Plymouth, New Zealand. Retrieved from      
  • Electronic newspaper articles

    Çetin, Ö. (2010, 21 Ocak). Televizyon alışkanlıklarımız IPTV ile değişecek. Hü (in Turkish)

    Tamer, M. (2015, 26 Haziran). E-ticaret hamle yapmak için tüketiciyi bekliyor. Milliyet. (in Turkish)

    Fellner, C. (2019, April 7). Time bomb: Two new cases as NSW faces worst measles outbreak in years. The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved from:
  • Editor article with unknown author

    Editorial: "What is a disaster" and why does this question matter? (2006). Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 14, 1-2.
  • Newspaper and magazine articles with unknown authors

    The United States and the Americas: One History in Two Halves. (2003, 13 Decenber). Economist, p. 36.
    Strong afterchocks continiue in California. (2003, 26 Decenber). New York Times [National Press.]. p. 23.
    In text:  (United States and the Americas, 2003) (Strong aftershock, 2003)

    Little blue penguins homeward bound. (2011, 23 November). Manawatu Standard, p. 5.

     In text:  (Little blue penguins, 2011).
  • Newspaper and magazine articles with certain authors

    Bruni, F. (2003, 26 Aralık). Pope pleads for end to terrorism and war. New York Times, p. 21.
    Rogers, C. (2011, November 26). Smartphone could replace wallets. The Dominion Post.
    Matthews, L. (2011, November 23). Foodbanks urge public to give generously. Manawatu Standard, p. 4. 
  • Encyclopedias

    Balkans: History. (1987). In the Encyclopaedia Britannica. (15. ed. Vol. 14, p. 570- 588). Chicago: Encyclopaedia Britannica.
    Moodle. (2014). Retrieved December 8, 2014, from Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia .org/wiki/Moodle

    In text:   (Moodle, 2014).
  • Dictionary

    Gerrymander. (2003). Merriam-Webster’s collegiate dictionary (11. ed.). Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster’s.
    Weller, B. F. (Ed.). (2009). Bailliere’s nurses dictionary: For nurses and health care workers (25th ed.). Edinburgh, Scotland: Elsevier.
  • Interview

    Arroyo, Gloria Macapagal. (2003, 28 July). Interview with  Michael Schuman. Time. Retrieved from: 13 January 2004,,8599,471205,00.html 9
    Ürün, K. (1997, 15 Temmuz). Cümbüş çalıcısı ve şarkıcı Kadir Ürün (dülcü) ile çalgıcı kahvesinde yapılan görüşme, Edirne. (in Turkish)
  • TV Show

    Long, T. (Yazar), ve Moore, S. D. (Director). (2002). Bart  and Lisa 3. Class [TV series]. B. Oakley and J. Weinstein (Producer), in the Simpsonlar. Episode:1403 F55079. Fox.

    In text:    (Simpsonlar, 2002)

    Beaudry, C. (Series producer). (2014). Northland harbours [Television series episode]. In J. Curran (Executive producer), Our big blue backyard. Dunedin, New Zealand: Natural History of New Zealand.
  • Film

    Huston, J. (Yönetmen/Senaryo Yazarı). (1941). Malta Şahini [Film]. U.S.: Warner. (in    Turkish)

    In text: (Malta Şahini, 1941)

    Gardiner, A., Curtis, C., & Michael, E. (Producers), & Waititi, T. (Director). (2010). Boy: Welcome to my interesting world [DVD]. New Zealand: Transmission.
    Ahmed, A. (Producer), & Breitenmoser, K. (Director). (2012). Job seeker Q&A: Planning your search [ClickView DVD]. Bendigo, Australia: VEA.
  • A single episode from a TV series

    Shore, D. (Scriptwriter), Jackson, M. (Senarist) and Bookstaver, S. (Director). (2012). Runaways [Television series episode]. D. Shore (Executive producer), in the House M.D.  New York, NY: Fox Broadcasting.
  • Photo

    Adams, Ansel. (1927). Monolith, the face of Half Dome, Yosemite National Park [Fotoğraf]. Art Institute, Chicago.

    In text:  (Adams, 1927)
  • Music record

    Say, F. (2009). Galata Kulesi. İstanbul senfonisi [CD] içinde. İstanbul: Ak Müzik (in Turkish)

    Midler, B. (2010a). The folks who live on the hill. On Memories of you [CD]. London, England: Warner Music UK.
    In text:  The heartfelt “The folks who live on the hill” provides an ideal vehicle for Midler to showcase her talents (Midler, 2010a, track 5).

    Midler, B. (2010b). Memories of you [CD]. London, England: Warner Music UK.
    In text:  (Midler, 2010b).
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